Greenwood Lake Conservation Reserve Tuesday, 2nd June, 2020 
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Contact Address
Greenwood Lake Advisory Committee c/o

Dr. Willard Carmean
Professor Emeritus

Faculty of Natural
Resources Management,
Lakehead University

955 Oliver Road,
Thunder Bay, Ontario,
Canada P7B 5E1

     (807) 343-8110
Research & Education

Research by the Candian Wildlife Service and by the Ministry of Natural Resources includes bird and small mammal inventories which show the presence of the pine warbler. This bird is at the northern edge of its range in northwestern Ontario where it is common only in old-growth white and red pine forests. Vertical biodiversity shows well-developed layers including: a) the dominant white pine canopy, b) a lower canopy of white and black spruce, balsam fir, and occasional yellow birch and red maple, c) a shrub layer primarily of mountain maple and beaked hazel, d) a herb-rich forest floor. Minimal white pine regeneration occurs beneath the dense overstorey; numerous suppressed white pine seedling occur but few exceed 1.0 m (3.3 ft) in height.

A small area on the southern edge of the forest was burned in August 1991 following a lightning fire. The hot fire consumed much budworm killed balsam fir and spruce, and crown scorch killed most of the large white pine. Studies show considerable white pine regeneration in the burned area but much competition also occurs from regrowth of paper birch, trembling aspen and balsam fir. These studies confirm the role of fire in regenerating white pine forests.

Forestry, biology, and outdoor recreation classes from Lakehead University use this reserve for field trips.